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Confusion Assessment Method

The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) was originally developed in 1988 to improve the identification and recognition of delirium. The CAM was intended to provide a new standardized method to enable non-psychiatrically trained clinicians to identify delirium quickly and accurately in both clinical and research settings. Since its development, the CAM has become the most widely used delirium detection instrument world-wide, due to its strong validation results as well as its ease of use.

The CAM instrument has been used in over 5,000 original articles to date, as either a process or outcome measure, and has been translated into over 14 languages.

Dr. Sharon Inouye and colleagues have developed a series of CAM-related instruments for the recognition and diagnosis of delirium. The instruments and their training manuals are available for download at